What are Australia's 2030 climate change targets?
Australia's national emissions reduction target is to reduce emissions to 26-28 per cent on 2005 levels by 2030.
Further information: Australian Government
What is the LRET?
Australia has a target to source 33,000 gigawatt hours of electricity from renewable sources by the year 2020.
The Large-scale Renewable Energy Target scheme operates through tradable certificates known as Large-scale Generation Certificates. Creation of certificates is managed by theClean Energy Regulator.
Eligible large-scale renewable power stations produce certificates for every megawatt hour of power they generate, creating the supply side of the certificate market. Large end users or retailers of electricity buy these certificates to meet their renewable energy obligations, forming the demand side of the certificate market.
Large end users or retailers of electricity then surrender these certificates to the regulator to meet the renewable percentage target set by the Clean Energy Regulator each year. Certificates are traded at a rate determined by supply and demand of the market, and certificate revenues contribute to the commercial viability of renewable generation.
Where can I find out about Australia's commitments under the Paris Agreement?
Australia's Government is committed to implementing national policies to reduce emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change in the context of coordinated global action.
An historic global climate agreement was agreed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris (30 November to 12 December 2015).
Key outcomes include:
- A global goal to hold average temperature increase to well below 2°C and pursue efforts to keep warming below 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
- All countries to set mitigation targets from 2020 and review targets every five years to build ambition over time, informed by a global stocktake.
- Robust transparency and accountability rules to provide confidence in countries’ actions and track progress towards targets.
- Promoting action to adapt and build resilience to climate impacts.
- Financial, technological and capacity building support to help developing countries implement the Agreement.
Further information: Australian Government website
Why do we need the LRET?
Diversifying Australia's power sources
The LRET is transforming our energy sector by diversifying Australia's sources of power. In 2013 14.76 per cent of Australia's total electricity was generated by renewable energy. This was mostly hydro power, but wind and solar are contributing an increasing share – in 2013, 1.3 million homes were powered by wind, and 1 million Australian homes and schools have solar PV on their rooftops.
More than two million small-scale energy systems have been installed across Australia, including more than one million rooftops with solar panels. This is helping Australian households take charge of their own energy bills.
What is the cost of the LRET?
The LRET currently only contributes between 3 and 5 per cent (depending on which Australian state you are in) to the average household power bill.
In New South Wales, the Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal has confirmed the cost of the LRET is only about 5 per cent of an average annual bill of $2,129. That equates to $107 per year. This is a relatively small cost per household when considering the thousands of jobs and billions of dollars of investment provided by renewable energy.
In Queensland, the state's Competition Authority has found the LRET will cost the average household less than $50 per year – about 3.5 per cent of the total electricity bill. This is a relatively small cost per household when you consider the thousands of jobs and billions of dollars of investment provided by renewable energy.
The cost that the LRET contributes to the average household bill is small compared to other contributors – for example, 41 per cent pays for network charges including maintaining poles and wires. This is forecast to increase to 43 per cent by 2020.
The LRET reduces wholesale power prices because it encourages more competition in the energy sector.
How much investment has LRET generated?
The LRET has generated $18.5 billion of investment, and is projected to generate a further $18.7 billion to 2030. Much of this investment is in rural and regional areas.
How many jobs has the LRET created?
The LRET has generated some 30,000 jobs, and is forecast to generate 30,000 more jobs.
What are the environmental benefits of the LRET?
Carbon emissions are 22.5 megatonnes lower as a result of the LRET. Without the LRET, Australia would not have met its emissions reduction target under the Kyoto protocol in 2014.
You can find an analysis of the emissions reductions that we get from investing in renewable energy on the Infigen Energy Blog here.
What is a wind turbine?
A wind turbine transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy. Wind turbines consist of a foundation, a tower, a nacelle and a rotor. The foundation prevents the turbine from falling over; it is usually 13m across and 1-2m deep. The tower holds up the rotor and a nacelle (or box). The nacelle contains large primary components such as the main axle, gearbox, generator, transformer and control system. The rotor includes the blades and the hub.
What are wind turbines made of?
The towers are mostly tubular and made of steel or concrete, generally painted white. The blades are made of glass-fibre reinforced polyester. They are white because it is inconspicuous under most lighting conditions. The finish is matt, to reduce reflected light.
Some scientists have found that future wind turbines might bepainted purpleto help avoid collisions with avian life, though we suspect it will be a while before that happens in Australia.
How does a wind turbine generate electricity?
The wind passes over the blades creating lift, which causes the rotor to turn. The blades turn a low-speed shaft inside the nacelle: gears connect the low speed shaft of the rotor with a high speed shaft that drives a generator. Here, the slow rotation speed of the blades is increased to the high speed of generator revolution. The rapidly spinning shaft drives the generator to produce electric energy. Electricity from the generator passes through to a transformer which converts it to the correct voltage for the distribution system. The electricity is then transmitted via the electricity network.
How much electricity does a wind turbine generate?
The output of a wind turbine depends on the turbine's size and the wind speed through the rotor. Wind turbines manufactured today have power ratings ranging from 250 watts to 7 megawatts.
You can view a live data stream showing the current output of wind farms, using this linkhere.
What is the wind?
The Earth is surrounded by the atmosphere, which is made up of air. Air is a mixture of gas, and solid and liquid particles. Energy from the sun heats up the atmosphere and the Earth unevenly. Cold air contains more air particles than warm air. Cold air is therefore heavier and sinks down through the atmosphere, creating high pressure areas. Warm air rises through the atmosphere, creating low pressure areas. The air tries to balance out the low and high pressure areas – air particles move from areas of high pressure (cold air) to areas of low pressure (warm air). This movement of air is known as the wind.
The wind is also influenced by the movement of the Earth. As it turns on its axis the air does not travel directly from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. Instead, the air is pushed to the west in the northern hemisphere and to the east in the southern hemisphere. This is known as the Coriolis force.
The Earth’s surface is marked with trees, buildings, lakes, sea, hills and valleys, all of which also influence the wind’s direction and speed. For example, where warm land and cool sea meet, the difference in temperature creates thermal effects, which causes local sea breezes.
How can wind be measured?
Wind is usually measured by its speed and direction. Wind atlases show the distribution of wind speeds on a broad scale, giving a graphical representation of mean wind speed (for a specified height) across an area. They are compiled by local meteorological station measurements or other wind-related recorded data. Traditionally, wind speed is measured by anemometers – usually three cups that capture the wind rotating around a vertical axis. The wind direction is measured with weather vanes.
After measuring wind data for at least one year, the mean annual wind speed can be correlated to a long-term reference point to calculate mean wind speed. Wind speed and wind direction statistics are visualised in a wind rose, showing the statistical repartition of wind speed per direction.
Wind source maps show the best sites to locate wind farms according to the best wind resources. They also provide further information on how the turbines should be positioned in relation to each other and what the distance between the turbines should be.
How fast do the blades turn?
The blades rotate at anything between 15-20 revolutions per minute at constant speed.
How long does a wind turbine work for?
Wind turbines can carry on generating electricity for 20-25 years. Over their lifetime they will be running continuously for as much as 120,000 hours. After this time they may be refurbished.
What are a wind turbine's lifetime emissions?
According to theEuropean Wind Energy Association,it takes a turbine just three to six months to produce the amount of energy that goes into its manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance and decommissioning after its 20-25 year lifetime. During its lifetime a wind turbine delivers up to 80 times more energy than is used in its production, maintenance and scrapping. Wind energy has the lowest ‘lifecycle emissions’ of all energy production technologies.
By directly reducing the use of fossil fuels, wind energy significantly reduces emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and other harmful pollutants. A number of detailed power system studies, as well as real-world experience with wind plants, have demonstrated that wind energy significantly reduces fossil fuel use and emissions. The outcomes of these studies are listed on the website of the American Wind Energy Associationhere.
How are wind farms designed?
Many factors are taken into consideration when designing a wind farm. Primarily the site needs to have a good wind resource, be close to a transmission network and have good access. When such an area is identified the design team places certain buffers around areas in which it cannot build, and places certain setback distances from houses, areas of conservation and reviews the local planning guidelines.
Following consultation with the local council, landowners and neighbours, further design and setback considerations are applied. The final turbine locations will be decided based on the wind resource at certain points and certain distances are put in place between each turbine to ensure maximum energy production and reduced ‘wake’ effects.
The final turbine locations also dependent on the turbine model selected and the outcome of the planning process and planning decision. All efforts are made to design the wind farm based on maximising production, local council consideration and consultation with landowners and neighbours
How long does it take to construct a wind farm?
Construction time is relatively short – a 10 MW wind farm can easily be built in two months. A larger 50 MW wind farm can be ready in 18 months to three years. It takes 2-3 years to develop, and 1-2 years to build.
Why do turbines sometimes stand still?
There are a number of reasons why turbines are not always spinning:
- Turbines have to be stopped for scheduled maintenance, for repairing components or if there is a failure that needs to be checked.
- Another reason can be too little or too much wind: if the wind is too strong, the turbine needs to be shut down because it could be damaged.
- When electricity demand is low, then electricity from wind turbines is not needed and they switch off.
What are the environmental benefits of wind energy?
Generation from wind energy emits no toxic substances such as mercury and air pollutants like smog-creating nitrogen oxides, acid rain-forming sulphur dioxide and particulate deposits. These pollutants can trigger cancer, heart disease, asthma and other respiratory diseases, can acidify terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and corrode buildings. Wind energy creates no radioactive waste or water pollution.
Wind power also largely avoids the impact of greenhouse gas emissions. Energy contributed to the grid from wind power would have otherwise been sourced from fossil fuels, a carbon intensive source of electricity.
How is electricity transported?
It is important to distinguish between the financial aspects and the physical National Electricity Market. The flow of electricity around the network does not care about contracts. Electricity transportation is governed by physical laws.
When an appliance is switched on, power is instantly transmitted from a power station to the appliance. Although this occurs instantaneously, a specific sequence of events takes place to ensure the delivery of the required electricity.
Electricity often travels long distances to reach the point where it is required because the sites where electricity is generated are often in remote areas where cheap fuel resources are abundant. During the transportation process, a percentage of electricity is always lost through electrical resistance, which heats up electrical equipment (such as conductors and transformers) along the way. To reduce the amount of electricity lost, a transformer at the generating plant converts the electricity from low to high voltage (which is more efficient way to transport large amounts of electricity). Transmission lines then transport bulk supplies of power from generating sites to locations closer to consumers.
At these locations, a substation transformer converts the high voltage electricity to lower voltage for distribution. Distribution lines carry low voltage electricity to consumers who access it through the power outlets in homes, offices and factories. The distribution network has more power line than the transmission network. This is because transmission lines can carry a large anount of power that will then require many distribution lines to take to consumers.
What is the grid and how does it work?
Electricity is distributed to the consumers via the grid – the physical infrastructure of the electricity network. The grid is made up of transmission and distribution networks. The transmission network – made up of the cables and pylons you see dotting the countryside – moves electrical power with a high voltage over long distances, and sometimes across international boundaries. The consumers are connected to the distribution system, which has a medium voltage level.
What is a substation?
The substation is the link between the transmission and distribution network, where the power is stepped down in voltage from the transmission to the distribution level. Once it reaches its final destination, the power is stepped down again to the required local level.
How loud are wind turbines?
The sound of wind turbines is similar to a light swishing sound, and much quieter than other types of modern-day equipment. Even in generally quiet rural areas, the sound of the blowing wind is often louder than the turbines. The noise of wind turbines has been reduced significantly with newer technologies. Improved design has drastically reduced the noise of mechanical components so that the most audible sound is that of the wind interacting with the rotor blades.
For those who are curious, we recommend visiting a wind farm, particularly on days of high wind speeds, when the turbines are generating the most electricity. It is always better to make a judgement for yourself.
What is infrasound?
Infrasound is a term used to refer to "acoustic oscillations whose frequency is below the low frequency limit of audible sound"*. Audible noise is a term used to refer to the frequency range between 20 to 200 Herz, however, audibility extends to frequencies below 20 Herz**.
* "International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Chapter 801: Acoustics and Electroacoustics", International Standard IEC 60050-801:1994, International Electrotechnical Commission, (1994).
** O'Neal, R., Hellweg, R. D. Jr & Lampeter, R. M., "Low Frequency Noise and Infrasound from Wind Turbines", Noise Control Engineering Journal J. 59 (2), March-April 2011.
Are wind turbines safe to live near?
Wind energy is one of the cleanest, most environmentally-friendly energy sources. It emits no greenhouse gases or air pollutants. Other generation types, such as coal, emit particulate matter in the process of extraction and generation.
According to thepublic statementmade by the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia, "there is currently no published scientific evidence to positively link wind turbines with adverse health effects". We have close partnerships with many people who live happily near wind turbines. The Australian Wind Alliance has collected some of these storieshere.
Are wind turbines safe for animals?
Big environmental and nature conservation groups like WWF, Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, and Birdlife support wind energy. Wind farms are always subject to an environmental impact assessment to ensure that their potential effect on the immediate surroundings, including fauna and flora, are carefully considered before construction is allowed to start.
How is variable-output technology integrated into the grid?
There is an increased focus on wind power and grid stability, given the increasing role of new energy types like wind turbines and solar power.
In Australia, our wind assets operate in two grids: the West-Australian South-West Interconnected System (SWIS), or the National Electricity Market (NEM) on the east coast. The two grids are operated separately but both incorporate similar techniques used worldwide to control stability on the electrical network.
To maintain stability, the ‘frequency’ of the grid must be kept at a specific level. Any deviation above or below can pose major physical threats to those connected to the grid, but the management of this is very carefully controlled, and backups are in place to ensure that frequency is kept within a safe range.
Frequency Control and Ancillary Services (FCAS) are a collection of tools used by the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) to ensure security, safety and reliability on the NEM. Electricity generators and consumers can offer to raise or lower their output extremely rapidly, in exchange for payments. Conversely, these costs are passed on to other grid users, as part of the cost of keeping the system secure and stable. These costs are a small fraction of total energy costs.
New wind energy facilities can contribute to these services, as can domestic solar and battery storage systems, though many of these contributions are still being explored and analysed.
What are the community benefits of wind energy?
Companies that own wind turbines work hard to ensure that real benefits flow to the communities that are kind enough to host them. An analysis by modelling firm Sinclair Knight Mertz found that for every 50 megawatts of wind power, 160 local and regional jobs are created $250,000 flow to farmers hosting the turbines, and ongoing community contributions are around $80,000 per year for the life of the project.
Infigen Energy follows industry guidelines for community engagement. One of our development projects, Flyers Creek, incorporates a benefit sharing scheme for the local community, in which a turbine is sold to a local cooperative (CENREC).
Our sponsorship program aims to support local communities based on their needs – for instance, the Capital Renewable Energy Precinct incorporates a ‘community consultative committee’, in which community leaders decide the best way to distribute funds.
You can read more about Infigen Energy’s community benefit activitieshere.
Where can I get wind speed data?
Wind speed data for specific wind turbines is not publicly available, but there is a lot of wind speed data available from the Bureau of Meteorology’s monitoring stations, located around the country. Visit the ‘climate data’ websitehere.
Some data is publicly available for free, other data sets can be purchased for a fee.